What is Management? के हो व्यवस्थापन?
वातवरणीय विश्लेषणबाट परिलक्षित गरिएको Vision, Mission र Objectives प्राप्त गर्न गरिएको व्यवस्थापकीय कार्यहरु (Planning, Organizing, Directing & Controlling) स्रोत साधनको बाँड फाँड, उत्पादनका साधनहरु (Land, Labour, Capital & Technology) को सन्तुलित प्रयोग गर्दै प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक (Competitive), तुलनात्मक (Comparative), रणनीतिक(Strategic) लाभ हासिल गर्न बनाउने संरचना, नीतिगत आधार तथा कार्यगत आधारहरुको समस्टिगत रुपनै व्यवस्थापन हो।
- कला र विज्ञान पनि भन्ने गरिन्छ।
- यो Continous Process हो।
- यसलाई job done through others भनेर पनि भनिन्छ।
- यो सैदान्तिक रुपमा विश्वसनीय भएपनि कार्यगत रुपमा फरक हुने गर्दछ।
- Man + Manage + Tactfully = Management
- यो साम्योगिक सोचबाट निर्देशित हुनुपर्छ।
Principles of Management
Henry Fayol, a French engineer: Cum manager had initiated 14 principles of management. They are listed below:
1)Division of work:
Specialization for all kinds of works to develop expertise. Every employee in an organization must be assigned only a specific type of work to increase efficiency.
2)Authority and Responsibility:
This is the issue of commands followed by responsibility. Authority means the right of a superior to give enhance order to his subordinates; responsibility means an obligation for the performance.
The employee must obey, but this is two-sided: the employee will only obey orders if management plays their part by providing good leadership.
4)Unity of Command:
Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command.
5)Unity of Direction:
All related activities should be put under one group, there should be one plan of action for them, and they should be under the control of one manager.
6)Subordination of Individual Interest:
Management must see that the goals of the firms are always come first.
The employee must be paid sufficiently as this is an important motivation of employees and therefore greatly influences productivity.
Centralization implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management. There should be one central point in the organization which controls over all parts.
9)Line of Authority/Scalar Chain:
This refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank. The principle suggests that there should be a clear line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers at all levels.
Both material order and social order are necessary. Material order ensures safety and efficiency in the workplace. The order should be acceptable and under the rules of the company.
Employees must be treated kindly, and justice must be enacted to ensure a just workplace. Managers should be fair and impartial when dealing with employees, giving equal attention to all employees.
12)Stability of Tenure of Personnel:
Stability of tenure of personnel is a principle stating that in order for an organization to run smoothly, personnel must not frequently enter and exit the organization.
Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization.
14) Team Spirit:
Team Spirit refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in the workplace; individually and communally. Team spirit helps develop an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding. Team spirit helps to finish the task on time.