Risks in Bank & Financial Institutions – बैंकिङ कारोवारमा निहित जोखिमहरु

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banking risks

What is Risk?

Risk is an uncertain future outcome that tends to make loss or injury in an organization. It is an element of investment.  The possibility of variation of actual return from the expected return is a risk. Risk cannot be avoided but can be managed.

Why do we talk about risk?

  • All the investments are exposed to risk.
  • No risk no return.
  • Lower the risk, lower the return.
  • Higher the risk, higher the return.

There are three types of investor-

  1. Risk seeker – who wants to take risk
  2. Risk Neutral – neutral
  3. Risk Averter – Fear of taking risk

Major Risks in Banks

Following are the types of risks.

  1. Credit risk
  2. Operational Risk
  3. Liquidity Risk
  4. Interest Risk
  5. Foreign Exchange Risk
  6. Market Risk
  7. Concentration Risk
  8. Market Risk

1) Credit Risk – Credit risk is the risk that the borrower fails to meet the obligation on agreed terms. बैंकबाट प्रवाह भएको कर्जा विभिन्न कारणले असुल हुन नसक्दा अथवा ग्राहकले कर्जाको सावाँ र व्याज तिर्न असक्षम हुँदा बैंकमा उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Credit Risk  (कर्जा जोखिम )भनिन्छ।

2) Operational Risk – बैंकको आफ्नै Process, People र System मा आएको गडबडीको कारण उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई  Operational Risk भनिन्छ।

3) Liquidity Risk – बैंकले आफ्नो ग्राहकहरुप्रति पुरा गर्नुपर्ने दायित्व पुरा गर्न नसक्दा उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Liquidity Risk (तरलता जोखिम) भनिन्छ। जस्तै बैंकले ग्राहकको पैसा मागेको अवस्थामा दिन नसक्नु।

4) Legal Risk / Regulatory Risk – बैंकको कर्मचारी वा सस्थापकले कानुनी तथा निर्देशिकाहरु नजान्दा वा अनविज्ञता हुँदा बैंक भित्र उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Legal Risk / Regulatory Risk भनिन्छ। Legal regularity risk arises in business conduct, accounting, taxation, documentation, etc.

5) Interest Rate Risk – ब्याजदरमा आउने नकारात्मक परिवर्तनको कारणले उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Interest Rate Risk भनिन्छ।

6) Foreign Exchange Risk – विदेशी मुद्राको दरमा आउने परिवर्तनको कारणले उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Foreign Exchange Risk भनिन्छ।

7) Market Risk – Market Risk arises due to the change in foreign exchange risk, equity risk, commodity price, and interest rate.

8) Concentration Risk – एउटै क्षेत्रलाई, एउटै किसिमको ब्यापारमा एकै खाले ग्रुपलाई कर्जा कहिल्यै पनि दिनु हुदैन। कर्जा प्रवाह गर्दा (lending Principles )कर्जा सिद्धान्त पालना गर्नु पर्छ। यसरि कर्जा दिदा एउटै क्षेत्रलाई, एउटै किसिमको ब्यापारमा एकै खाले ग्रुपलाई दिदा उत्पन्न हुने जोखिमलाई Concentration Risk भनिन्छ।

Risk Management

Risk MeaningCauseManagement
Credit RiskWhen Customer Fails to Pay Interest and Principle on Time- Compliance with exposures
- Compliance with SOL
- Internal Control System
- Collateral Monitoring
- Cash Flow Analysis
- Loan Loss Provision
- Performance Monitoring
- Stress Testing
- Credit Approval Process and Authority
Operational RiskInternal System, Process and People- Internal Control System
- Compliance and Reporting
- Timely Reconciliation
- System Audit
- Insurance
- Regular MIS
- Corporate Governance
Liquidity RiskWhen Bank Unable to Meet Financial Obligation- Assets Liabilities Management
- Risk Exposure Analysis
- Contingent Liquidity
- Stress Testing
- Maintaining CD Ratio
Legal RiskDue to Lack of Legal Knowledge- Make Aware of Legal Aspects, Rules & Regulations

Stress Management – Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person’s level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of and for the motive of improving everyday functioning.

यो नयाँ term हो। यदि 10 जना ठुला Depositors हरुले एकैचोटी आफ्नो निकाल्दा बैंकलाई हुने असर हरुको नतिजा अगाडी नै निकालिन्छ।

एकिकृत निर्देशिका नं. 5 मा उल्लेख भएका जोखिमहरु जम्मा 5 वटा मात्र हुन् 

  1. Liquidity Risk
  2. Interest Rate Risk
  3. Foreign Exchange Risk
  4. Credit Risk
  5. Operational Risk